How to Use Different Methods of Time Travel in Fiction

Time Travel


by Stephanie O’Brien


If one of your characters is a time traveller, there are several factors you have to account for to make sure the story stays plausible and to avoid holes in your continuity or character motivation.

Time travel also creates a variety of opportunities for character drama and an unusual set of dilemmas for the protagonist.

In this article, I’ll explore three different models of time travel, as well as ways to use these models to improve or complicate your story, things to watch out for, and ways to avoid common problems associated with time travel.

Model 1: Physically traversing a single timeline

In this model, there’s a single timeline, and the time traveller physically moves back and forth across it, usually with the help of a machine.


Ways to use this method of time travel in your story:

1. Because they bring their body back with them, the traveller can meet face-to-face with their own younger self, or even team up with themselves to solve a problem too big for either to solve alone.

2. Taking the above to its logical extreme, if they repeatedly travelled to the same point in time, they could actually create an army of themselves, albeit briefly.

If the mission is dangerous, they would have to be careful to ensure that none of the earlier iterations died, because that would instantly erase any later iterations of them, and drastically reduce their numbers.

3. People in the traveller’s present might remember seeing them in the past and ask about it, forcing them to either dodge the question or explain themselves.

4. The time traveller could get frustrated by not being the “main” version of themself in the past scenario in which they find themselves, especially if their hindsight tells them that their past self is screwing up.


Things to watch out for:

1. Because they are separate from their past selves, their past self doesn’t inherit their knowledge of the future. That being the case, it’s important for the time traveller not to erase their own original motivation for going back in time, or they’ll undo everything they’ve accomplished.

That problem can be solved by having the traveller split off from their own main self and timeline upon time travelling, thus becoming a second version of themself whose memories and motives aren’t affected by their “main” self’s development.

In that scenario, even if their past self never experiences the events that caused them to time travel, the traveller and their actions will still exist.

2. If the point in time to which they travelled is recent enough that they and their past self still look similar, the traveller will need to avoid being seen with their past self, or doing anything that they wouldn’t want their former self to be implicated in. Unless, of course, you want to cause problems for Past Protagonist.

3. Related to the above, if the time traveller WAS seen doing something noteworthy, avoid having the other characters implausibly fail to question why Past Protagonist was doing something like that, or why they were seemingly in two places at once.


Model 2: Sending their soul, but not their body, back in time

With this method, the time traveller’s body does not go back in time. Instead, their soul goes back and enters their body at an earlier point in the timeline.

This visit to the past can be either temporary or permanent, and each option has drastically different implications for the story.

If the backward travel is permanent, the time traveller must cope with having irrevocably lost all the accomplishments, relationships, and shared memories from the future.

If it’s temporary, the younger self must continue to exist, or the body would be left as an empty husk after the time traveller left it. In this case, the writer must establish how much the younger self is aware of external events during the cohabitation, how much of the future soul’s memories and emotions are transferred, which soul is dominant, and whether the two agree on the actions the more knowledgeable version of the time traveller wants to take.

Either way, the time traveller will probably experience some frustration and loneliness from remembering relationships, shared experiences and conversations with other people, while knowing that their family and friends have forgotten those events entirely.


Ways to use this method of time travel in your story:

1. This model can allow you to explore the same scene from multiple angles. For example, you could have the traveller meet the same person for the first time twice, and have a very different mindset and reaction in each meeting.

2. Because this model allows the time traveller to retain their memories of the way things originally went, you don’t have to be as careful to avoid removing their original motive for time travelling. Therefore, your alterations to the sequence of events can be much more drastic than they can in model one, without sacrificing plausibility.

3. If you want to add extra drama and conflict, then instead of having the future soul overwrite the past soul, the traveller could end up competing with their younger self for control. This could get especially complex if they travel repeatedly, and end up with multiple different iterations of themself in a single body.

4. Because this method can basically act as a form of “save scumming”, your character can experiment, and act in ways they wouldn’t if they knew that every action had permanent consequences.


Things to watch out for:

1. If you do choose to write the same scene repeatedly, both before and after time travelling, be sure to highlight the differences between the two. How has the traveller’s mindset and personality changed from one iteration of that event to the other? This will help you avoid being repetitive and boring.

2. I recommend including some form of limitation on the number of times they can travel, the length of time they can traverse in a single jump, or how frequently they can use their time travel, or adding some sort of cost to their ability, to prevent them from becoming overpowered.

3. Other ways to keep things from being too easy are to either make the primary source of conflict challenging enough that they can’t defeat it simply by trying repeatedly, or to show how reliving the same sequence of events over and over is starting to wear down their mind.

4. You’ll want to establish whether the future continues to exist in its former state, unaltered except for where the time traveller changes their actions relative to what they did the first time around, or if it’s erased entirely, and must be rewritten from scratch.

This will affect whether the traveller can return to their home time, or if they must relive their lives from the point to which they travelled.


Model 3: Moving from one timeline to another

In this model, instead of moving back and forth along a single timeline, the time traveller creates or enters a new timeline every time they travel.

As a result, the timeline from which they came continues on without them, and the original series of events remains intact, which fixes the problem of needing to avoid altering the events that motivated their original time jump.


Ways to use this method of time travel in your story:

1. If the reason for the time travel was a disastrous event that the protagonist wants to prevent or escape, abandoning their original timeline to enter a better one can leave them with a case of survivor’s guilt. They’ve left their friends behind in a terrible situation, while they themselves try to create and enjoy a better future.

2. They might try to gather information or resources in the new timeline that would allow them to return to their original timeline and alter it, or try to return only to find that that’s impossible.

3. If time travel creates alternate timelines, as opposed to transferring the traveller to an existing alternate timeline, this might harm the time-space continuum in some way that could cause significant plot implications, and limit their use of time travel.

4. In each new timeline, things can either be the same as the original timeline until the point where the time traveller starts to interfere, or, if you really want to mess with your protagonist, they could be different enough that the traveller finds themselves in new and confusing territory after each jump.

5. Another possibility is to have people from other timelines invade the protagonist’s timeline, or for them to have to hunt a fellow time traveller from one timeline to another.


Things to watch out for:

1. If you choose to make each timeline different from the rest even before the time traveller’s interference, make sure the differences are plausible.

2. If the time traveller can bring objects from one timeline to another, make sure that any really powerful objects are sufficiently foreshadowed, difficult to obtain, or logically available. You don’t want to turn your alternate timelines into deus ex machina dispensers.


Are you writing a story that involves time travel?


Do you have any tips for your fellow writers?





Stephanie O’Brien has been writing novels since she was twelve years old and has published three of them on Amazon’s Kindle. When she isn’t writing novels and running her marketing business, she’s usually creating comics, music videos, and fanfiction. If you’d like to get more writing tips, or to check out her books, art, and videos, you can visit her website. You can also connect with her on Facebook or on Twitter.

35 thoughts on “How to Use Different Methods of Time Travel in Fiction

  1. I do enjoy causality discussions. I think this can also work for fantasy writers who incorporate prophecy into their novels. If you know the future, does that give you power over it? Or by avoiding a future event, will you accidentally cause it to happen?
    Very interesting stuff. Thanks for the great overview on time travel.

    I’ve been considering writing a post on methods of time travel but concentrating instead on the technology itself and possible ways protagonists might accomplish it. The science behind time travel has always been interesting to me. I especially like when writers incorporate logical or plausible sounding science into their explanation of time travel.


    1. “I think this can also work for fantasy writers who incorporate prophecy into their novels.”

      Interesting that you should mention that. I’m working on a series now in which prophecy plays a major role. Historically, or in any fantasy book I can think of at the moment, there are two rules about prophecies:
      1) They always come true.
      2) They aren’t really very helpful (at least, as guides to what action you should take).

      So I guess there, the ‘trying to avoid something makes it happen’ scenario is probably more likely than the ‘knowing the future gives you power’ one.

      This reminds me of certain science fiction stories where time travel is possible, but events are nevertheless fixed and the traveler can do nothing to change them. Fritz Leiber’s ‘Try and Change the Past’ comes to mind.

      Liked by 1 person

    2. You’re very welcome. And thank you for your feedback! I agree that the causality behind prophecy, and the prophecy itself, could add some interesting layers to the plot, if used correctly instead of as a cop-out to make the protagonist special with a minimum of effort.

      I actually wrote an article on how use prophecies to complicate the plot instead of spoiling it or cheaply solving it – you can see it here: But the causality behind them is a subject I didn’t really get into in that article.

      I’d love to see an article on the science behind time travel. One of my current WIPs uses magical means to accomplish it, but another book I’m considering for the distant future will likely include a more technology-based method, so your potential article would be handy for me.

      Liked by 1 person

  2. The spacetime-continuum is like a bridge. You can fix it as you go forwards, to prevent disaster, but altering what’s behind you could disrupt your journey. Only your subjective, relative future can be changed, not the past.


    1. That’s why I like the “your soul goes back, not your body” model the best. With that model, the journey behind you is already taken, so it can’t be disrupted. Your original motives and character development survive changes to the timeline, which gives the author more creative freedom. But now you have to rewrite your subjective, relative future, and live with the loss of the future existence you once had.

      Liked by 1 person

      1. Yes, I like this as well, but take it a little further, with the concept of a chi particle (chi-p), which is our individual, and almost indestructible, core existence. The chi-p is life energy. Reblogged this enjoyable and worthy post with a few further, small comments. Cheers


  3. Awesome post! I happen to be working on an attempted time-travel novel now.

    So often I read books where the scientist eventually succeeds (usually after a quite a few tries that the reader rarely sees). But I wanted to write about a scientist who ultimately fails, yet learns the lessons of time travel in the process.


  4. One concept I haven’t come across in time-travel stories is (if it’s a technology based story) that the time traveler must not only go back in time, she must also go back in space.

    Say she wants to go back six months. Six months ago the Earth was on the other side of the sun, on a different axial tilt. (in relation to the sun) Our solar system was in a slightly different position, as was our arm of the galactic spiral. Even our whole galaxy would be in an infinitesimally different location. 🙂

    She’d have to factor in anomalous gravitational events, like an asteroid passing through any of the projected pathways she wished to travel, for example.

    Then, when she comes forward, all the calculations would have to be done again, including any influences she may have, willingly or unwittingly, initiated.


    1. That’s a good factor to consider. I’m actually planning on having some scenes in a future comedy novel, where a pair of time travelers screw up by failing to account for the movement of the Earth. One of them finds themself watching their planet sail away without them, while the other watches it come hurtling toward them.

      Liked by 1 person

  5. I have written a time travel novel, but not using any of these methods. My story involves Richard III accidentally time travelling to the present day and finding out he lost the Battle of Bosworth, then trying to go back and change history. The only ‘meeting yourself’ element is that he attends his own re-interment!I have had several comments such as ‘You can’t go back and change the past’ and ‘If you could, you would probably disrupt your own existence and create a paradox, etc’. My reply is: Yes, I can, because it’s fiction – the only limitations are your imagination. It’s meant to be entertaining above all else. As long as there is some kind of internal consistency in the story, anything goes. My theory in the story is that time gradually reforms itself and the waves caused by the change in the past become less extreme so that the present day now is still very similar to the way it was before, if that makes sense. The past has changed, but (for example) the queen is still Elizabeth, same personality, but now Elizabeth Plantagenet and is a little taller. 🙂


  6. Reblogged this on Michael Seidel, writer and commented:
    I’m almost obsessive about time, time-travel (and the apparent inherent paradoxes), and the concepts of reality (and ‘now’). (If you doubt that, read my novel, “Everything Not Known”, in which realists and creationists compete to master and control reality in battles which we do not know are taking place.) I’m really excited about Kip Thorne’s work, but I’m starting to take it all way, way further. While I have in no sense understanding of time from a physics point of view, I like speculating that humans misconstrue time and its impact. The is the primary drive behind the novel in progress, “Long Summer” (sequel to “Returnee). Fun thinking.


    1. Thanks for the reblog and feedback, Michael. Time and time travel do present a lot of intriguing possibilities for fiction, though personally my favorite way to play with them is through the emotional impact they have on the characters. The MC of one of my works in progress is totally tearing themself apart inside, reliving the same painful sequence of events over and over in desperate attempt to create the outcome they desire.


    1. Thank you, edmmuseblog. Though come to think of it, the theory you mentioned could be a good plot device if you want characters to make mistakes they can’t fix, or get permanently separated from their loved ones and former lives. Either they knew the consequences of traveling forward and made that sacrifice intentionally, or they didn’t know and got a hideous surprise.


    1. You’re welcome, Giulialexandra! And thank you for the compliment – I’m glad the article helped. (Sorry I’m replying so late; it was a full couple weeks!)


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